Offshore marine terminals providing bulk liquid transfer facilities to tankers through floating and sub-sea flexible hose strings may be at risk of tanker breakout and surge pressures
within the hose strings. Tanker breakouts may be as a result of parting of mooring hawsers due to excessive environmental forces and surge pressures may be experienced due to
operational errors, such as the incorrect operation of transfer valves. Where no protective device has been installed, such incidents have resulted in the rupture of hoses or damage to
Single Point Mooring systems (SPMs) and tanker pipework and fittings, with consequent pollution of the environment.